Covent Garden, Westminster/​Camden

A thriving commercial zone centred on a former wholesale market east of Soho and south of Bloomsbury

Covent Garden market at sunrise

It is generally asserted that the name is a corruption of ‘convent garden’ but it is quite possible that ‘covent garden’ was the original version (as ‘convent’ derives from the Anglo-​​Norman covent) and that the name has always been rendered this way, at least in spoken form.

The Romans did no more than pass through here but Saxons lived in the area after they estab­lished the settlement of Lundenwic, which flourished from ad600. After 900, Viking attacks prompted the Saxons to move back within the walls of the City of London and there was little habitation here until the foundation early in the 13th century of the Benedictine convent of St Peter, Westminster.

Following the dissolution of the monas­teries, the Bedford family acquired the land, which remained in agricultural use until the fourth Earl of Bedford obtained a licence from the Crown in 1630 to lay out an estate here. This represented quite a coup, as requests for such licences were generally being refused at this time.

Inigo Jones laid out a disciplined grid of streets around St Paul’s church and a central piazza. At first the highest class of citizens made their homes in Covent Garden but the area’s universal popularity proved its undoing. Coffee houses, taverns, theatres and traders of all kinds attracted throngs of Londoners and the aristocrats beat a retreat, leaving ever more dubious characters in their wake.

The third theatre on this site, the Royal Opera House has staged ballets and operas for more than 150 years

The third theatre on this site, the Royal Opera House has staged ballets and operas for more than 150 years

Even the vice trade was no match for the trade in flowers, fruit and vegetables that dominated Covent Garden from the 18th century. The market buildings of the present-​​day piazza were erected in 1830 and roofed over in 1870. Neighbouring slums were progressively cleared and replaced by ‘model’ housing for the working classes.

To escape the traffic congestion of post-​​war London, the wholesale market relocated to Nine Elms in 1973. The Greater London Council planned to demolish the market buildings but an exemplary community campaign brought a change of heart that resulted in their refur­bishment in 1980 as a retail shopping complex (shown in the photograph aat the top of this article). The redevel­opment succeeded beyond the wildest dreams of its proponents and Covent Garden is now one of London’s busiest destin­ations for shopping trips, dining out and general entertainment.

The resid­ential population has recovered as run-​​down old homes have been modernised, although the area retains a broad social mix, with many people still renting from the council or housing associ­ations. Small businesses have been drawn in, especially those operating in new media sectors.

The poet Andrew Marvell lived on Maiden Lane, where the artist JMW Turner was born above his father’s barber’s shop in 1775.

James Boswell wrote The Life of Johnson while living on Great Queen Street, which was also home to the dramatist Richard Brinsley Sheridan and the poet William Blake.

Among the many films that have used Covent Garden as a backdrop, the most distin­guished are 1964’s My Fair Lady and 1972’s Frenzy. The latter evocatively captures the fruit and vegetable market in its final days – a world away from the scene today.

Postal district: WC2
Population: 13,023 (Camden’s Holborn and Covent Garden ward, 2011 census)
Station (mysti­fyingly missing from the map below but located precisely in the middle): Piccadilly line (zone 1)
Further reading: Clive Boursnell, Old Covent Garden: The Fruit, Vegetable and Flower Markets, Frances Lincoln, 2012
and John Richardson, Covent Garden Past, Historical Publications, 1995
Websites: In and Around Covent Garden and Covent Garden Life


The two HDR photo­graphs on this page were taken within a few minutes of each other, very early one summer morning, using a tripod-​​mounted Panasonic Lumix
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